2008 Johnson PJ, Stoll K. (2008). Remittance patterns of Southern Sudanese refugee men: Enacting the global breadwinner role. Family Relations, 57(4): 431-443.
Questionnaire data from 172 Sudanese refugee men in Western Canada revealed that most of the men were sending money (i.e., remittances) to family in Africa, although doing so created considerable financial and emotional strain. Those who experienced greater emotional strain had more social support and spent a smaller proportion of their income on remittances. Those who experienced greater financial strain had less support, were in Canada a shorter time, and had higher (over $20,000) compared to lower income (less than $20,000). Understanding the continuing financial obligations of global breadwinners, who are providing financially for relatives elsewhere, is critical content for social service programs that serve refugee and immigrant newcomers.